Updating risk prediction tools a case study in prostate cancer
In the male cohort with a mean follow-up of 11.2 years, 10 112 men died and 5066 had a fracture, with 1166 hip fracture cases.
In women the adjusted mortality hazard ratio for three or more glasses of milk a day compared with less than one glass a day was 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.80 to 2.06).
Nelson, MD; James Reston, Ph D; George Rodrigues, MD; Howard M. Cadeddu, MD Following a prostate cancer diagnosis, patients are faced with a multitude of care options, the advisability of which is influenced by patient factors and by cancer severity or aggressiveness.
Secondary or salvage treatment for localized prostate cancer that persists or recurs after primary definitive intervention, and primary treatment of locally advanced/metastatic disease, are outside the scope of these guidelines.
High-count MBL is distinguished from Rai 0 CLL based on whether the B-cell count is above or below 5 × 10/L.
Although individuals with both high-count MBL and CLL Rai stage 0 are at increased risk of infections and second cancers, the risk of progression requiring treatment and the potential to shorten life expectancy are greater for CLL.
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Men, avoid the over diagnosis and unnecessary treatment of prostate cancer. Read the sad truth about prostate cancer testing and treatment.Prostate cancer lies, exaggerations, deception and elder abuse.Main outcome measure Multivariable survival models were applied to determine the association between milk consumption and time to mortality or fracture.
Results During a mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 15 541 women died and 17 252 had a fracture, of whom 4259 had a hip fracture./L B-cells and no other signs of a lymphoproliferative disorder.